Commercial Real Estate’s Acronyms-Must Know

GOI – Gross Operating Income = GOI is simply how much income the investment brings before any expenses or debt service are subtracted.

   Potential Rental Income
             – Vacancy & Credit Loss
             =Effective Rental Income
             + Other Income
  = Gross Operating Income


NOI – Net Operating Income = NOI is the Gross Operating Income minus all of the operating expenses.  NOI does not take into account debt service so this number is before your mortgage payment is made. Operating expenses are all of the expenses (except debt service) that are incurred to operate the properties.  These include; insurance, taxes, utilities, repairs & maintenance, management, etc.

             Gross Operating Income
             – Operating Expenses
= Net Operating Income

CCR (or CoC) – Cash on Cash Return = CCR is a measurement of the investments performance or the yield on the cash that you have invested.  CCR is a relatively good metric for comparing investments across different asset classes, i.e. stocks compared to real estate.  It is the percentage of pre-tax cash that you earn on the amount of cash you invested.

CCR = Annual Pre-tax Cash Flow/Total Cash Invested


IRR – Internal Rate of Return = IRR is another measurement of the investments performance.  IRR is often the gold standard of comparison between different investments because it takes in to account the initial investment costs, cash flows, and sale proceeds.  So instead of just looking at the monthly cash flows you get a better measurement of the overall profitability or loss.  A higher IRR is better.  The IRR calculation is complicated enough that it is best left to a financial calculator or computer program where you input the data and it spits out the IRR number. 

Cap Rate – Capitalization Rate = Cap Rate is probably the most used analysis term in real estate.  Personally, I think cap rates are a little over-rated because they don’t factor in items such as equity growth through appreciation and paydown of the loan, but I’ll save that argument for another day.  The cap rate is simply an estimate on your returns used to compare different properties or markets.  As cap rates go up, the return on your investment goes down (when you are the seller).  As a buyer, you want a higher cap rate.

Cap Rate = NOI/Property Value or Cost


GRM – Gross Rent Multiplier = The easiest way that I have found to explain GRM is that it is the number of years of gross income that it would take to pay for the property in full.  So if a property is listed for $500,000 and the annual gross income is $100,000 the GRM would be 5.  There may be a few caveats to that definition but here is the formula:

GRM= Market Value/Annual Gross Income



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